Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney – Spirit of Justice
Capcom has announced that Ace Attorney 6 is coming to the west this September as Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney – Spirit of Justice.
It will be digital-only, and sell for $29.99 / £24.99 / €29.99.
You can find the announcement and english trailer below:
SAN FRANCISCO — May 11, 2016 — Today, Capcom, a leading worldwide developer and publisher of video games, has confirmed that the much-anticipated next installment in the Ace Attorney® courtroom drama series will make its way to North America and Europe as Phoenix Wright®: Ace Attorney® – Spirit of Justice. This narrative adventure stars beloved defense attorneys Phoenix Wright and Apollo Justice and sees the return of many familiar faces alongside some interesting new additions. The title will be released as a digital download in the Nintendo eShop for the Nintendo 3DS™ family of systems in North America and Europe in September this year at an MSRP of $29.99 / £24.99 / €29.99.
Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney – Spirit of Justice sees Phoenix in a brand new location: a courtroom situated in the Kingdom of Khura’in, origin of the Kurain Channeling Technique, where mysterious séance trials decide the fate of all defendants. Brand new to the series is the Divination Séance gameplay mechanic that allows the player to revisit the last moments of a victim’s life. Players must fight to unravel the discrepancies and contradictions between the Royal Priestess’s Insight and what is shown in the séance. Meanwhile, defense attorney Apollo Justice faces his own challenges holding down the fort at the Wright Anything Agency, as he takes on a case that will have explosive implications. Both our heroes are joined by a host of returning friends and adversaries in their fight to bring about justice.
The new game is filled with puzzling cases to solve using popular investigative techniques from previous installments. More details on gameplay features will be revealed in the coming months, so stay tuned!
Moreover, the latest issue of Famitsu gives us a thorough coverage of the game’s third episode, and the new characters introduced in it.
Here are the details, courtesy of Court-Records:
– Maya is arrested on suspicion of murder when a priest is killed during the final rite of her training
– Both were alone in the shrine at the time of the crime
– When the murder happened, Maya was playing the role of the country’s mythical bird princess, said to have protected the country in a time of conflict
– The bird princess is so popular there’s a show based off of her, “Torisaman” (a play on the words “Tori”, bird, and “Tonosaman”, the Japanese name for the Steel Samurai)
– Nayuta returns to Kurain to take the case
– Ema is traveling with him, and offers to help Phoenix in his investigation upon arrival, with the old Luminol magic
– Two new characters are revealed who have direct ties: Nanashiino Ganbe and Saara Aatam
– Nanashiino Ganbe is a man so amnesiac he’s appended “Tentative” to his own name
– Saara Aatam is the victim’s wife
– Aatam seems to be hiding something, which leads to the re-introduction of the Psyche-Lock system
– Another two major characters are introduced
– Druk, the leader of the revolutionary forces, and Rayfa’s father, Inga Karakhul Kurha’in
– Inga is not only the husband of the queen but the Minister of Justice in the country, making his struggle against the revolutionaries that much more personal
– Revisualization makes its return, but unlike AA5 where the process was shown as moving from left to right, here it’s visualized as diving “into” the screen
– It’s also revealed that both Simon Blackquill and Miles Edgeworth will make an appearance in the game.
Below you can find some footage and screenshots pertaining to this information from Famitsu:
Furthermore, a new trailer and commercial for the game have been released in Japan, which you can watch below, and a special livestream dedicated to the game will be broadcast via both Youtube Live here and on Capcom’s Twitch channel.
Finally, we have some information about the game’s size and demo.
The download for Ace Attorney 6 requires 6,624 blocks, or 828MB.
The demo is now out, and allows players to go through the game’s opening episode and watch the opening animation. Stereoscopic 3D is also supported.
You can find some footage from this demo in the videos below:
Monster Hunter Generations
Capcom has revealed that Monster Hunter Generations will launch in North America and Europe on July 15, and will be accompanied by a special New 3DS XL, which is blue for North America and red for Europe. A demo for the game should also be made available in the summer.
You can take a look at the game’s announcement and new trailer below:
SAN FRANCISCO — May 12, 2016 — Capcom, a leading worldwide developer and publisher of video games, announced that Monster Hunter Generations™ will launch in North America on July 15 for the Nintendo 3DS™ family of systems. Fans eager for this latest installment of the popular action RPG series will have a special opportunity to immerse themselves in the adventure with the New Nintendo 3DS XL Monster Hunter Generations Edition, also launching on the same day.
The New Nintendo 3DS XL Monster Hunter Generations Edition comes in a beautiful blue hue and features artwork of the game’s Fated Four, an elite group of powerful new monsters. Players can get straight into the action with enhanced graphics, fluid camera control options with the C-stick functionality, and mappable ZL and ZR buttons for Hunter Arts offered on New Nintendo 3DS systems. The game will need to be purchased separately from the new hardware.
Monster Hunter Generations allows players to take on tons of colossal creatures in more than 20 different hunting locations, either solo or via local and online co-op play with up to three other hunters. By collecting items from their hunts and adventures, players can craft more powerful weapons and armor, opening up paths to even more dangerous quests. With the debut of new gameplay mechanics that include four different Hunting Styles and powerful abilities known as Hunter Arts to equip, Monster Hunter Generations is the most customizable Monster Hunter™ experience yet!
Players will be able to try out Monster Hunter Generations for themselves before its July 15 launch, when a playable demo will be released on Nintendo eShop this summer. More details to come at a later date.
And here’s a look at the special New 3DS XL:
Meanwhile, in Japan, the game will be getting some Street Fighter felyne costumes based on Chun-Li and Blanka. These will be distributed through June 30th at 7-spots. A regular distribution is expected in the future, and it is unknown for now if the western release, will get these costumes. These costumes are returning features from Monster Hunter 4G.
Besides this, Capcom has reported its financial results for the fiscal year ending on March 31, 2016, and net sales increased by 19.8% year-over-year to 77,021 million yen ($711 million) while operating income also rose 13.7% to 12,029 million yen ($111 million).
According to Capcom, Monster Hunter Generations was a large contributor to the company’s success. It anticipated that the game would sell about 2.5 million copies, but it ended up moving three million units.
Capcom is targeting net sales of 85,000 million yen ($785 million) for the next fiscal year. There will be a focus on improving penetration of its brand outside of Japan, increasing digital game sales, and launching major games including Monster Hunter Stories and Ace Attorney 6.
Dragon Quest 30th Anniversary Countdown Broadcast
– 5:30 AM PT
– 8:30 AM ET
– 1:30 PM in the UK
– 2:30 PM in Europe
MC Ayana Tsubaki, Dragon Quest series executive producer Yuu Miyake, and Dragon Quest series creator and game designer Yuji Horii will be present on the broadcast. The group will count down to the May 27 30th anniversary of the Dragon Quest series.
My Hero Academia: Battle for All
Bandai Namco has published another two trailers for My Hero Academia: Battle for All, this time covering the characters Denki Kaminari and Yuuga Aoyama. Check them out below:
SEGA 3D Classics Collection
The latest episode of SEGA Central confirms that SEGA 3D Classics Collection will be launching in Europe, and news should be coming “soon” regarding this. SEGA’s just working through approvals and submissions at the moment.
The publisher’s spokesman Dan Sheridan states in the video “One thing I can tell you, is it is coming”, which makes it pretty clear, I guess. Check it out below if you want:
Etrian Odyssey V
During the week, Atlus provided us with a new batch of information and screenshots for Etrian Odyssey V. The following information covers the game’s Master Skills system, including some of the choices that that system gives players, as well as some more character skills.
Here’s everything that Atlus had to share, including some new screenshots and artwork, courtesy of Gematsu:
– Clearing certain conditions will deem an adventurer a “Master” within the council.
– Masters can access “Master Skills”, which are high-level techniques within their class.
– Players must choose between two titles, with each title giving them access to a different tree of skills they can learn.
– In the case of the Fencer class, for example, you can become a “Phantom Swordsman” or a “Thunderclap Swordsman”.
– The Phantom Swordsman specializes in speed and evasion, while the Thunderclap Sworsdman specializes in combo attacks.
-Players can also edit the names for titles.
Character Class Skills
– A 2wrrior that fights with bare fists and is a front-row, special-type attacker, that can block and aim accurately.
– Character Skills include:
– Arm Break: Single target attack that can inflict Arm Bind status.
– Blood Rampage: Chance of counterattacking after taking damage.
– Demon Fist: Consumes own HP to deal damage to a single enemy, but also hurts enemies beside the target.
– A front row scythe wielder that weakens opponents by making them sick with a power called miasma.
– Character Skills include:
– Miasma Armament: Consumes own HP to cloak self in miasma for three turns.
– Jugon Sickle: Single-target attack that may curse the target if the reaper is cloaked in miasma.
– Soul Gathering: Increases encounter rate and experience points for a fixed amount of steps by drawing in the miasma of surrouding mosnters.
– An all-purpose summoner that calls upon the dead and use a variety of offensive, defensive, and support skills.
– Character Skills include:
– Spirit Summon: Consumes own HP to summon a spirit to an empty space. Can also summon a spirit while moving in the dungeon.
– Life Compensation: Destroys a spirit to heal all allies’ HP.
– Fire Bomb: Turns a spirit into a destructive bomb, that turns into a long-range flame attack against all enemies.
– A Long-range summoner that uses a bow and arrow, while working with a falcon and hound, to attack and bind enemies’ body parts.
– Character Skills include:
– Falcon Whistle: Summons a falcon. Can also be used while moving in the dungeon.
– Wings Flash: Single target attack from a distance, followed up by a row attack from the falcon.
– Hound Whistle: Summons a hound. Can also be used while moving in the dungeon.
– Rescue Sign: Uses the hound to heal an ally from status conditions and restore its HP.
– Back row support specialist, that is a master of healing and buffing.
– Character Skills include:
– Prayer: Guard: Increases all allies’ defense power for three turns. The amount of turns increases with the skill’s level.
– Gospel: Recovers HP of an ally when using a strengthening skill.
– Oracle: Ranbu: Cancels fire, ice, and thunder, and unleashes an attack with those attributes, while reducing those attributes until the end of the turn.
Aeolis’ Grand Market
– Here you can buy and sell equipment and items.
– By selling materials you increase the variety of purchasable equipment and items.
– You can also strengthen weapons at the Blacksmith.
– Smithed weapons are branded with a “+1”, “+2”, etc., increasing their attack power.
– Weapons strengthened to their maximum amount can be “recycled” to obtain materials to strengthen other weapons.
The latest issue of Famitsu also contained a sizable update about Etrian Odyssey V. It covers character creation, job changing, facilities, and Master Skills. You can find a summary of these details below, courtesy of Nintendo Everything:
In this game’s character creation screens, first you choose the desired race, then their job and lastly their looks. You can customize the hair, eye and skin colors. The “jobless” race illustrations can also be used for the character’s looks.
After reaching a certain point in the game, you can change character jobs without changing their looks or stats, and their level will be reduced by five without any stat penalties. You can even change to jobs not originally available to that race, making for example a Therian Cestus or a Bronie Necromancer.
Inside Aeolis City, there are various facilities like the inn and bar. In Jenetta’s Inn, you can heal, save, store items, and also take care of cows and chickens you’ve caught in dungeons. In the Witch Twilight Bar, you can take on quests which have rewards upon completion. These range from collecting certain materials to beating certain monsters.
You can become a “Master” after reaching certain conditions. By doing so, you can then choose from two titles for each class and learn “Master Skills” for that title, leading to enhanced stats.
Character Class Skills
1. Adamantine Dragon Trooper (specializes in guarding)
– Soul Guard: Reduces physical damage to an ally lane, and protects against fatal damage with some probability.
– Full Guard: Reduces all damage to all allies.
2. Gunfire Dragon Trooper (specializes in gunfire)
– Buster Cannon: In the next turn, deal a long range break + fire attack to an enemy (damage increases the closer the distance).
– Rapid Cannon: long range break attack to an enemy, highest priority in the turn it’s used.
1. The Death God who Spreads Death (specializes in inflicting status and enhancing attack)
– Cicada Cloth: Temporarily leaves with the Miasma Armament as their double, then returns at end of turn to deal a close range slash attack on an enemy. If the double received fatal damage, that damage will be nullified by sacrificing the Miasma Armament and not attacking.
– Scythe of Death: deal a close range slash attack to an enemy, with probability of instant death. The probability is better if the enemy is sleeping.
2. The Death God who Keeps Away from Death (Specializes in Supports)
– Chipping Miasma: For three turns, reduce physical and magic defenses of all enemies.
– Scythe of Bubble: Removes all weakening statuses on an enemy, converting them to close range slash attacks X times based on how many weakening statuses were on the enemy.
1. Shitenichi-Style Warrior (specializes in multi-hit attacks)
– Multi-Sword Technique: Can equip up to four swords. A fixed amount of normal damage will be inflicted X times based on how many swords are equipped.
– Flowers Blooming in Profusion: Deals a random amount of close range slash attacks to each enemy, the total amount being equal to number of equipped swords X number of enemies.
2. Peerless Warrior with One Blade (specializes in single-hit attacks)
– Triple Hit: Deal a maximum 3-combo hit on an enemy. In each attack there’s a probability to seal head + arm + leg, if the seal is inflicted, the attack ends right there.
– Thunder Cut: close range slash + thunder attack on an enemy.
1. Herbalist with Deep Compassion (specializes in healing moves)
– Area Herb: Heals all ally HPs (There is also Cure Herb which heals only an ally, and Line Herb which heals an ally lane).
– Lingering Scent: For five turns, at the end of each turn repeat the effect of last herb skill used on all allies.
2. The Naive Poison Killer (specializes in inflicting status)
– Smoke Solid: Probability to petrify an enemy being inflicted with effects from a Smoke Skill.
– ParalySmoke: Probability to inflict paralysis to an enemy lane, and also lower their resistance to paralysis for 3 turns.
1. Monk who Controls Six Elements (learning six elements)
– Alter: At the beginning of the third turn after this is used, deal a long range break attack on an enemy, along with probability to petrify it.
– Wind Stream: deals a long range slash attack to all enemies, along with probabilities to seal their arms.
2. Ruler of Fire, Ice and Thunder (specializes in three elements)
– Ice Stream: long range ice attack on all enemies.
– Explode: long range fire attack on all enemies.
Finally, we have a second video preview and three new class trailers that Atlus recently published in Japan. You can watch them below:
Story of Seasons: Cherished Friends of Three Towns
The latest issue of Famitsu provides us with more information about Story of Seasons: Cherished Friends of Three Towns. This includes details about additional characters, events, and facilities. You can find a perfected roundup of the shared details based on Nintendo Everything’s summary.
First, the magazine introduces Ford, one of the groom candidates. He’s a doctor and has a clinic located in Wes Town under the name White Castle. Ford’s part time job involves being a test subject for his medicine experiments that have different effects. He also takes care of child delivery.
Dessie is back in this game. You can talk to her in Wes Town’s spring fountain to visit the multiplayer island. She is associated with StreetPass, and will provide you with items your pet has picked up from other players locally.
Witchie is another returning character, and is located inside Lulucoco Village’s ancient ruins. If you speak with her, you can customize your avatar and change features like your face type, skin color, and eye color. It seems Witchie can lower your relationships with other people, and Famitsu hints that doing so may result in some benefits.
When it comes to new characters, Famitsu introduces us to Inari, a fairy character from Tsuyukusa Village who can inform players about the weather forecast for the different villages. Inari is also a hidden marriage candidate within the game.
Furthermore, the article touches on events featured in the game, which are held at certain times and at certain places. The pumpkin festival, for instance, is held during the fall in Tsuyukusa Village. There’s also a fishing tournament in Lulucoco Village. The winter event Starlight Gala is back from the original title, and there’s also a new Noctiluca Gala in the spring. The different villages host Goddess Festivals as well to praise their fairies.
Moreover, we have some details on various facilities. Here’s a roundup of the info:
– Hair-braiding shop: change your hairstyle; found in Tsuyukusa Village.
– Hinoki Bath: hot springs; quality of the bath impacts amount of HP recovery; found in Tsuyukusa Village; can get a hot spring on the farm if you’re far along enough.
– Relacion: provide Ludeus with materials and he’ll build something (Farm Circles, home upgrades or exterior/interior changes, clothes, fishing bait).
– Tsuyukusa Teahouse: Komari’s father Ginjirou is in charge; drink tea inside or outside.
– Lala Salama: inn run by Totokala, Ludeus’ grandmother; found in Lulucoco Village; allows players to regain HP and eat breakfast.
Finally, the magazine also reveals that a Hamtaro collaboration will be added to the game. Story of Seasons: Cherished Friends of Three Towns will feature Hamtaro as one of the available pets. Kurumi Mamiya, the character’s voice actress, will reprise her role. Creator Ritsuko Kawai also agreed to the collaboration.
A new CoroCoro video has been published, showing off a bit of footage from Yo-kai Watch 3. In it, we get a glimpse at the RPG’s battle system. You can watch it below:
During the week, Nintendo shared a good batch of new information and footage about its upcoming Japanese 3DS game Culdcept Revolt, which releases in Japan on July 7 for 4,700 yen.
The title is now available for pre-purchase on the 3DS eShop, and those who take advantage of this or spend 500 Platinum My Nintendo points can receive a “Start Dash Version” demo. The download comes with eight types of books (decks of cards) and includes the opening part of Quest Mode. Save data can later be transferred to the full game too.
Nintendo stated that Culdcept Revolt will have more than 150 story mode stages, and “Breed Cards” that are possible to train and develop.
You can watch the Culdcept Revolt Direct below, as well as an introduction video featuring Aya Shibata, and some footage from the “Start Dash Version”. A second presentation about the game will be held in late June.
River City Ransom SP
The developers will further improve the game’s quality with this extra time. Arc System Works also apologized to their fans for the wait, and noted that they appreciate the continued support.
Puzzle & Dragons X
CoroCoro has released another five minutes of footage from Puzzle & Dragons X. You can watch the video below:
Battle of Elemental REBOOST
Four of these characters are the alter egos of the game’s previously announced playable characters. The lineup includes Sils (Celcius’ alter ego), Renzasilt (Fahrenheit’s alter ego), Mal (Mole’s alter ego), and Io (Biot’s alter ego). We have yet to see the fifth, but it seems to unlock after meeting certain requirements.
A Survival Mode is also said to be included in the game. In it, players win through fights as their favorite character and try to achieve a high score. The mode features a “Record” screen to view wins and losses, along with key configuration to change the controls to your liking.
Circle Entertainment Announcements
Circle Entertainment announced during the week that Puzzle Labyrinth is coming to the 3DS. We should be getting it in North America and Europe sometime in early June.
Puzzle Labyrinth plan to released on early of June (NA/EU). An amazing game you should not miss! pic.twitter.com/0YMqWZxwCq
— CIRCLE Ent. (@CIRCLE_Ent) 13 de maio de 2016
Furthermore, Conveni Dream is now planned for North America for May 26, and will cost $5. Keep in mind that the date is subject to change because it isn’t confirmed yet.
Conveni Dream NA version targeting 26th May, pricing $5.00! Well, it’s planning, not confirmed yet.
— CIRCLE Ent. (@CIRCLE_Ent) 10 de maio de 2016
Circle Entertainment also confirmed that an update patch for The Legend of Dark Witch 2 is in the works, which will address some bugs. It’s coming on May 19, but the European version might see a bit of a delay.
The legend of Dark Witch 2 patch will be released on 19th May. EU patch will be a little delay. The patch has solved some bugs.
— CIRCLE Ent. (@CIRCLE_Ent) 14 de maio de 2016
A patch for Ash is also coming soon, which will address some small issues with the game, as you can see below.
Ash will update a patch in short time, which correct some bugs and improved BGM repeat issues.
— CIRCLE Ent. (@CIRCLE_Ent) 10 de maio de 2016
The game is releasing on June 1, and will be priced at 380 yen.
Danger Road is developed by Sims Co. Ltd. and plays like a modern day Frogger with two game modes: arrived run and survival run.
Sumikko Gurashi: Mura wo Tsukurun Desu
The game is called something like “Sumikko Gurashi: Mura wo Tsukurun Desu” and is releasing on July 21, with a price of 5,184 yen.
You can visit the teaser site over here.
Minecraft: Wii U Edition
Nintendo recently announced that it is partnering with Mojang and Microsoft for a special Super Mario series collaboration with Minecraft.
The “Super Mario Mash-Up Pack” will be available for free on May 17, and will add 40 new skins, a Super Mario-themed pre-made world, and a set of Super Mario-themed music and item textures. It’s all inspired by various entries in the Super Mario series, including Super Mario World, Super Mario 64 and Super Mario Sunshine.
The retail version of Minecraft: Wii U Edition has also been dated, and will be out on June 16 for $29.99.
Below you can find a trailer and the official announcement for the Super Mario Mash-Up Pack.
REDMOND, Wash., May 9, 2016 – In a match made in block-shaped heaven, Nintendo is partnering with Mojang and Microsoft to bring the imaginative worlds of the Super Mario series and Minecraft together. For the first time ever, players will be able to fend off blocky Hammer Bros. and Dry Bones the same way they do Creepers and Zombies.
On May 17, the Super Mario Mash-Up Pack comes to Minecraft: Wii U Edition as a free game update. After downloading the update, players who own the Minecraft: Wii U Edition digital game, which launched last December, will have immediate access to new skins, a Super Mario-themed pre-made world and a set of Super Mario-themed music and item textures. All this new content is inspired by games in the iconic Super Mario series, such as Super Mario World, Super Mario 64 and Super Mario Sunshine. When the retail version of Minecraft: Wii U Edition launches in stores on June 17 at a suggested retail price of $29.99, the Super Mario Mash-Up Pack will be included on the disc.
“Both the Super Mario franchise and Minecraft embrace the magic of exploration and discovery,” said Steve Singer, Nintendo of America’s Vice President of Publisher & Developer Relations. “Players will have a great time adventuring and creating in this free game update that embraces the unique and memorable elements of both franchises.”
The Wii U version of Minecraft features the full game, as well as many of the most popular previously released content packs for no extra charge. Downloading the Super Mario Mash-Up Pack gives players 40 new Super Mario-themed skins, which transform the game’s characters into familiar heroes like Mario, Luigi and Princess Peach, and even troublemakers like Bowser, Wario and all seven Koopalings. All the world and item textures in the game will also be redone, providing players the opportunity to create their own Super Mario-themed locations within the world of Minecraft. While building, players will even enjoy listening to the smooth sounds of 15 pieces of music from Super Mario 64. Builders of all ages will love crafting massive new worlds using building blocks inspired by a series as accessible and recognizable as Super Mario.
Finally, here’s the boxart for the retail version of the game:
With the recent release of Disney Art Academy in North America, Nintendo has uploaded three drawing lesson videos, featuring Krysta from Nintendo Minute. You can watch them below, and follow her advice to try to draw these characters.
Speaking of Nintendo Minute, the latest episode features Kit and Krysta playing a game where they each draw a character in Disney Art Academy and see if the other can guess who it is. You can watch the episode below:
Finally, Nintendo also uploaded a video for the Nintendo NY media preview for Disney Art Academy. You can take a look at it below:
Disney Infinity Cancelled, Avalanche Software Closing Down
Disney Infinity will soon come to an end this summer, after the release of three new characters from Alice Through the Looking Glass later this month, and the Finding Dory Play Set in June. There will be no more content after this, as the series is now cancelled.
Avalanche Software, the development team behind Disney Infinity, will also be closed. Disney Interactive as a whole also shared the intent to no longer make any video games and instead “transition exclusively to a licensing model”.
The official statement reads:
“After a thorough evaluation, we have modified our approach to console gaming and will transition exclusively to a licensing model. This shift in strategy means we will cease production of Disney Infinity, where the lack of growth in the toys-to-life market, coupled with high development costs, has created a challenging business model. This means that we will be shutting down Avalanche, our internal studio that developed the game. This was a difficult decision that we did not take lightly given the quality of Disney Infinity and its many passionate fans.”
Virtual Console Trailers
Below you can find trailers for some Virtual Console titles that were recently released on the Japanese Nintendo eShop.
Mega Man 7 (SNES, New 3DS)
Mega Man X (SNES, New 3DS)
Contra III: The Alien Wars (SNES, New 3DS)
Kawa no Nushi Tsuri 3 & 4 (GBA, Wii U)
Rocket Company merging with Imagineer
Imagineer recently announced that it will be fully absorbing Rocket Company on July 1. The Medabots copyright was initially shared between the two sides, so it will now be completely held by Imagineer.
The merging decision was made because Imagineer plans to partially reduce its retail software business while reconsidering the company’s strategy. They’ve seen growth within the smartphone games market, so they want to make their organization management more efficient and speed up the development of mobile titles.
Since Rocket Company published the Medabots games in Japan, hopefully this indicates that the series will survive somehow, however there’s no telling if it will keep its presence on Nintendo systems.